The date palm tree is the crop of choice for arid regions. It came through over time and survived the risks of natural origin and / or anthropogenic. It includes a strategic interest for several reasons :
- Ecologic by its physiological performance for extreme environmental conditions (aridity, heat waves, salinity...);
- Economic by its dates production basic of Saharan agricultural economy ;
- Population stability factor by its effect "oasis" that enabled the development of an agrarian organization, social and cultural.
However, this field has never benefited from a valorization of height of offered potentials that would be in terms of exploitation that barely exceed 12-20 000t / year for a production constantly increasing.
We must also recognize that the search for its part still feeble in the fields of date palm and that a few significant results are available to the decision makers regarding :
- Standards for technical linear to improve production.
- In term of innovative technologies for transformation at least for the mastery of the conservation of exportable products of international standards.
- Or in the biotechnology plan for the regeneration of some economic cultivars and / or agronomy interest.
Moreover, the observations made these recent years (dryness of the date, flowering discrepancies between male and female) by the center researchers, but by farmers, we wonder about the impact of global warming on the future of this strategic culture and we open other research issues in particular concerning the study of pollen and conservation of date and that led us to launch a phenological monitoring network in the oasis environment (see figure 3).
This is what motivated the CRSTRA to undertake the actions for the 2013-2017 five-year program .
At the local even regional level, the creation of a technopole "Date" has been repeatedly proposed by the Centre in which the date palm division will play a main role.
Furthermore, we were asked by civil society by the creation of a museum of Date Palm where a technical sheet was prepared by management of the Centre. The latter will be domiciled in London Garden / Biskra.
Strategic axis: Valorization and preservation of potential date palm cultivation
Targeted Objective: For a better sustainable production and
valorization of this Algerian potential date palm
- Varietal diversity and biotechnology
- Control of technical itinerary and phytosanitary protection
- Valorization by technology and the innovation of products and sub-products of date palm tree.
- Phenological observation compared with the possible effects of climate changes.
Expected results :
- Cartography of the Southwest palm grove and tracking the cultivars of economic and / or ecological interest.
- Production of vitroplant specimens of organoleptic high quality tolerant or resistant to Bayoud.
- Elaboration of specific standards for irrigation and fertilization depending on the nature of the soil and irrigation water.
- Elaboration of food products (innovative) based on date for high nutritive value (eg : nutritional bars for school canteens easy to be preserved and transported , energetic for anemic, sports ,...)
- Elaboration of innovative products valorizing the sub-products of the date palm tree
- Development of dattes conservation standards "common" of high commercial value (eg... Itima, Zogar Mogar, Fagous, BentKebala)..
- Technical innovation for a mechanization of certain cultural operations of the date palm tree.
Through the phenological monitoring network is aimed of eventual potential effects on the phenological cycle of the date palm tree and / or the appearance of certain diseases (eg. Boufaroua). Which will suggest a re-adaptation schedule for certain agricultural operations (pollination, treatment, irrigation, planting programs,...) and set up an early alert system relative to the occurring of certain diseases or simply to avoid ripening dates a long exposure to heat waves through artificial ripening (see attached copy)..
Fig. 03: Phenological monitoring network relative to the impact of climate changes